In light of the current sentencing disparity Socioeconomic correlates of lifetime and annual use of powder cocaine and of crack were delineated using multivariable logistic regression and correlates of frequency of recent use were examined using generalized negative binomial regression.
While the powdered form of cocaine is simply referred to as cocaine or coke, the rock form is often referred to as crack or crack cocaine.
Specifics of Cocaine and Crack Cocaine is a hydrochloride salt in its powdered form, while crack cocaine is derived from powdered cocaine by combining it with water and another substance, usually baking soda sodium bicarbonate. After cocaine and baking soda are combined, the mixture is boiled, and a solid forms.
The name crack derives from the crackling sound that is produced when the drug is heated and then smoked, according to the Center for Substance Abuse Research. Since crack is so highly concentrated, it is extremely addictive. Cocaine and crack certainly differ in appearance. Cocaine is generally found in white powder form, and crack is found in a rock form that is generally white, cream, tan, or light brown.
Crack and cocaine also differ in the manner in which they are used. Cocaine is typically snorted, and crack is typically smoked. Another difference between the substances relates to the high produced.
The intensity and duration of the high largely relate to how the drug is taken, per the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Generally, when cocaine is injected or smoked, the drug takes effect more quicklyresulting in a more intense but shorter high.
When cocaine is snorted, it takes longer to feel its effects but the resulting high lasts longer. According to a clinical pharmacist, cocaine and crack produce very different effects in the body, largely related to how they are usually administered.
When cocaine is snorted, its effects occur in about minutes; they peak within minutes; and they dissipate within hours. The effects of crack take hold in under a minute, peak in minutes, and last minutes. If cocaine is injected, however, the effects begin, peak, and for about as long as crack.
While injection is not the most common method of cocaine consumption, it is used by some people.RACE AND CLASS PENALTIES IN CRACK COCAINE SENTENCING By Michael Coyle* Overview After a decade of contentious debate regarding the federal sentencing disparities between crack cocaine and powder cocaine, a number of significant initiatives to reform current policy.
Jun 01, · Reporting from Washington and Los Angeles — Thousands of federal prisoners could have an average of three years shaved off their prison terms to correct wide disparities in sentences between crack and powder cocaine offenders, under a .
Aug 03, · The Fair Sentencing Act is "a bipartisan bill to help right a longstanding wrong by narrowing sentencing disparities between those convicted of crack cocaine and powder cocaine," Obama said last.
Further, the ethnic breakdown of users and sellers involved with crack cocaine and powder cocaine heightens the social divide between blacks and whites. According to the U.S. Sentencing Commission, % of crimes due to powder cocaine involved Hispanics, 27% included blacks, % whites, and % other.
Cocaine Sentencing Disparities. change about the disparity in the sentencing law between the users of crack cocaine and powder cocaine, an issue that has been dormant but not dead for a number.
Mar 19, · Remembering the Crack Epidemic. about the disparities between crack cocaine sentencing and powder cocaine sentencing?
Mr. JASPER: I think it's just another reflection of the disparities .