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Abstract Reward and punishment are potent modulators of associative learning in instrumental and classical conditioning. However, the effect of reward and punishment on procedural learning is not known. The striatum is known to be an important locus of reward-related neural signals and part of the neural substrate of procedural learning.
Here, using an implicit motor learning task, we show that reward leads to enhancement of learning in human subjects, whereas punishment is associated only with improvement in motor performance. Furthermore, these behavioral effects have distinct neural substrates with the learning effect of reward being mediated through the dorsal striatum and the performance effect of punishment through the insula.
Our results suggest that reward and punishment engage separate motivational systems with distinctive behavioral effects and neural substrates. However, despite the great increase in knowledge in the past two decades of the neural basis of the reward effect Schultz,and that of punishment to a lesser extent, we lack clear data about how reward and punishment influence the learning of specific behaviors, apart from those in classical and instrumental conditioning, and how this might be mediated at a neural level Delgado, To address this issue, we focused on procedural learning, a distinct learning behavior that is the foundation of many of our motor skills and perhaps other functions such as cognitive, category and perceptual learning Squire, The fact that procedural learning is thought to be largely dependent on the basal ganglia Willingham et al.
To test the influence of reward and punishment on procedural learning, we used a modified version of the serial reaction time SRT task Nissen and Bullemer,a simple and robust experimental probe Robertson,during which continuous modulation of motor output was required and reinforcement and non-reinforcement learning were dissociated.
We opted to use monetary reward and punishment because it is a strong modulator of human behavior and has clear effects on brain activity Breiter et al. As in the original SRT task, subjects pressed one of four buttons with the right hand when instructed by a visual display.
Trials were presented in blocks in which the lights were illuminated either randomly or, unbeknownst to the subject, on the basis of a element repeating sequence. All subjects first performed several blocks of random trials to minimize the effects of learning the general visuomotor behavior on later blocks, and to establish an individual criterion response time cRT on which subsequent reward and punishment would be based.
Subjects were then randomly assigned to reward, punishment, and control groups. Because we used reaction time RT as an index of learning, subjects were, therefore, rewarded for faster responses, which were easiest to generate through learning the repeating sequence.
To control for a potential distractor effect of the incentives on the learning process, several additional blocks without reward or punishment were presented after the trials with incentives.
The blocks were presented in the order outlined in Figure1A-B.
In the current report we describe the impact of reward and punishment behavioral results using a large cohort of subjects and the neural correlates of this behavior in a smaller number of different subject on whom functional imaging was also performed.We contrasted two theories of the error-related negativity (ERN), one purely cognitive/motor, one emotion/motivational by using gain and loss motivation on different trials in a .
Reward and Punishment: A Motivator in Childs Learning Experimental Psychology Psy 6 Psychology Department Prof. Ryan Tojerros Tricia Mauriz E. Manaman 3F3- BS Psychology I. INTRODUCTION Operant conditioning is one of the many ways of learning, which is constructed by the means of giving rewards and punishment in an individual.
Punishment was thought of as a good short term motivator when things needed to be done quickly whilst reward was thought of as better in the long term. This seems logical as employees working in a temporary job may not mind the ‘stick’ to motivate them but in a job they plan to stay in long term they are unlikely to stick around if.
Reward/Punishment in “Metamorphosis” Reward and punishment are often used as means for handling kids in terms of education.
Gregor Samsa, caught in a beetle’s body, also reminds us of an indigent child, depending on other people’s mood and commitment. Reward vs. Punishment: What Motivates People More?
Productivity Turns out, your employees will work harder to avoid a loss than to seek a gain, according to research.
As the Marquis de Sade taught us long ago, penalties are far more motivating than rewards. Economists argue that we are more inclined to avoid actual loss than to strive for conditional benefits.