Introduction It is important to properly and appropriately cite references in scientific research papers in order to acknowledge your sources and give credit where credit is due. Science moves forward only by building upon the work of others. There are, however, other reasons for citing references in scientific research papers. Citations to appropriate sources show that you've done your homework and are aware of the background and context into which your work fits, and they help lend validity to your arguments.
Format of Citations and References 1. Introduction As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report. Many of the references you use will come from published sources.
Some may come from electronic sources such as the World Wide Web, Melvyl and Harvest databases available through the UC Davis library, CD references and the like, and some may come from interviews. An important component of your writing will be the effective use of reference material. This skill will serve you well in writing papers of all types, not just those required for Referencing a research paper.
For this class, we will be using the documentation style of the American Psychological Association APA, modified with italics substituted for underlining.
This format is very similar to that of the Modern Language Association, and these are the most commonly used styles for publishing in the social and natural sciences. The general form of citations in the body of the text is to include the author and date in parentheses as above and optionally include the page number s after the date.
If the author's name was just mentioned in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it in the citation. The rules are described in more detail, with examples, in section 3.
Basic Guidelines The purpose of the term paper in ECS 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information. A research paper requires searching for information pertinent to a given subject, organizing it, and presenting it effectively in written form.
Oral research reports are also useful, but this course does not cover them. In the following sections, we will present the way that we want you to cite your references in the term paper for this course.
The required format meets the accepted practices cited in Li and Cranea reference that is currently considered the best authority on citing electronic sources. This book in turn follows the basic format for the American Psychological Association APA,which is a good format though by no means the only acceptable one in technical publications.
You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their own styles. Learning how to follow one such set of rules is a worthwhile exercise. You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below.
In-text Citation to References When citing a reference from your reference list, please use the following conventions. Put in parentheses the author s last names, the year, and optionally the page number s separated by commas.
For one author, use the author's last name and year separated by a comma. Walters, or Austin, For more than five authors, use the first author's last name and "et al. For the date, use the year. If there are two references by the same author s for the same year, use letters after the year: If there are specific page numbers for a citation, add them after the year Walters,pp.
If you include the author's name s in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: Do not use footnotes in this class for citations. You can use them for explanatory text, but not for references.
Have the citation make it easy to find the reference in the "References" section. All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for themselves. Your List of References Create a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called "References".
This section goes at the end of your paper. The references are to be alphabetized by the fist author's last name, or if no author is listed the organization or title. If you cite more than one paper by the same first author, sort them by year of publication, earliest year first.
Do not use footnotes for citations. Single-space the entries in your list of references. Start at the left margin for the first line of each bibliography entry. Each additional line of each entry should be indented a reasonable amount. Separate the entries with a blank line.Journal of Market Research, 17, APA Format for Journal Articles with More Than Seven Authors: The rules for referencing both single and multiple authors apply to all sources whether the material came from books, magazine articles, newspaper articles, journal articles, or online sources.
Using the Harvard Referencing System When you use someone else’s thoughts or ideas you must acknowledge that person or their work.
This should be done in the body of the text as a citation, and as a full reference at the end of your document.
References: When providing references in research paper you must inform the readers about the sources you used to cite this information.
The reference page is known as the "Works Cited". The reference page is known as the "Works Cited". Conference paper (individual) Conference proceeding (full) Conference proceedings (published on the internet).
When to Cite References in Scientific Research Papers. You should acknowledge a source any time (and every time) you use a fact or an idea that you obtained from that source.
Thus, clearly, you need to cite sources for all direct quotations. Research Paper Help; How to cite WEBSITES APA Web Site Citation Web sites do not include subscription databases. Examples are not double-spaced, but your References list should be double-spaced; Examples do not show indented lines after the first line, but yours should be indented ; Omit any information not found (author, organizational sponsor.