Our special "thank you" to Russ Stephenson for writing the very poignant "Tribute to Irv" that follows. As he matured, his experience took him to the East via Alaska, where he was deeply involved in scheduling and economic analysis with Pan American World Airways. Irv was a quiet, intense, private man, who was not given to chatter about himself, or much else.
Declarative memory Declarative memory requires conscious recallin that some conscious process must call back the information. It is sometimes called explicit memorysince it consists of information that is explicitly stored and retrieved. Declarative memory can be further sub-divided into semantic memoryconcerning principles and facts taken independent of context; and episodic memoryconcerning information specific to a particular context, such as a time and place.
Semantic memory allows the encoding of abstract knowledge about the world, such as "Paris is the capital of France". Episodic memory, on the other hand, is used for more personal memories, such as the sensations, emotions, and personal associations of a particular place or time.
Episodic memories often reflect the "firsts" in life such as a first kiss, first day of school or first time winning a championship.
Visual memory is part of memory preserving some characteristics of our senses pertaining to visual experience. One is able to place in memory information that resembles objects, places, animals or people in sort of a mental image.
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Visual memory can result in priming and it is assumed some kind of perceptual representational system underlies this phenomenon. It can best be summarized as remembering how to do something.
Procedural memory is primarily employed in learning motor skills and should be considered a subset of implicit memory. It is revealed when one does better in a given task due only to repetition — no new explicit memories have been formed, but one is unconsciously accessing aspects of those previous experiences.
Procedural memory involved in motor learning depends on the cerebellum and basal ganglia. A characteristic of procedural memory is that the things remembered are automatically translated into actions, and thus sometimes difficult to describe.
Some examples of procedural memory include the ability to ride a bike or tie shoelaces.
Thus, retrospective memory as a category includes semantic, episodic and autobiographical memory. In contrast, prospective memory is memory for future intentions, or remembering to remember Winograd, Prospective memory can be further broken down into event- and time-based prospective remembering.
Time-based prospective memories are triggered by a time-cue, such as going to the doctor action at 4pm cue. Event-based prospective memories are intentions triggered by cues, such as remembering to post a letter action after seeing a mailbox cue.
Visual paired comparison procedure relies on habituation: The time spent looking at each photo is recorded.
Looking longer at the new photo indicates that they remember the "familiar" one. Studies using this procedure have found that 5- to 6-month-olds can retain information for as long as fourteen days.
Infants notice that when they kick their foot the mobile moves — the rate of kicking increases dramatically within minutes.
Whereas 2- to 3-month-olds can retain an operant response such as activating the mobile by kicking their foot for a week, 6-month-olds can retain it for two weeks, and month-olds can retain a similar operant response for as long as 13 weeks. Studies using the elicited imitation technique have shown that month-olds can recall the action sequences twelve months later.
Paired associate learning — when one learns to associate one specific word with another. For example, when given a word such as "safe" one must learn to say another specific word, such as "green". This is stimulus and response. On the other hand, items that have been presented lastly suffer little RI, but suffer a great deal from proactive interference PIwhich means the longer the delay in recall, the more likely that the items will be lost.
This is similar to fill in the blank assessments used in classrooms. Recognition — subjects are asked to remember a list of words or pictures, after which point they are asked to identify the previously presented words or pictures from among a list of alternatives that were not presented in the original list.Studies of the brain mechanisms of cognitive functions (attention, perception, memory, language, and intelligence).
The objective of these studies is to gain better understanding of the dysfunction of the cerebral cortex in neurological and mental illness impairing cognition. Teacher-created and classroom-tested lesson plans using primary sources from the Library of Congress. Exhibit Design and Development Team Ton Luong, Project Lead, Concept Design & Prototyping Ganna Boyko, Graphics & Frontend Development Edward Lau, Backend Development.
Teacher-created and classroom-tested lesson plans using primary sources from the Library of Congress. Feb 13, · Tap here to turn on desktop notifications to get the news sent straight to you. Russell V.
Stephenson passed away on March 13, at the amazing age of He had been living in an assisted living facility in Salem, Va. since the passing of his beloved wife Vivian in April of