The New York City Tenement House Act of defined a tenement as any rented or leased dwelling that housed more than three independent families. Tenements were first built to house the waves of immigrants that arrived in the United States during the s and s, and they represented the primary form of urban working-class housing until the New Deal. A typical tenement building was from five to six stories high, with four apartments on each floor.
Tenements in Soundview, The Bronx As the United States industrialized during the 19th century, immigrants and workers from the countryside were housed in former middle-class houses and other buildings, such as warehouses, which were bought up and divided into small dwellings.
The adapted buildings were also known as " rookeries ," and these were a particular concern, as they were prone to collapse and fire.
Mulberry Bend and Five Points were the sites of notorious rookeries that the city worked for decades to clear. Yards were a few feet wide and often filled with privies. Interior rooms were unventilated. Early housing reformers urged the construction of tenements to replace cellars, and beginning in the number of people living in cellars began to decline.
Brooklyn, Gold Street, A Sweltering Night in New York, As a compromise, the " Old Law tenement " became the standard: Ware is credited with the design;  he had won a contest the previous year held by Plumber and Sanitary Engineer Magazine to find the most practical improved tenement design, in which profitability was the most important factor to the jury.
It used both charts and photographs, the first such official use of photographs. There were also fire-safety requirements.
These rules are still the basis of New York City law on low-rise buildings, and they have made single-lot development uneconomical. Edinburgh's tenements are much older, dating from the 17th century onwards, and some were up to 15 storeys high when first built, which made them among the tallest houses in the world at that time.
Virtually all Glasgow tenements were constructed using red or blonde sandstone, which has become distinctive.
|Visit Website A typical tenement building had five to seven stories and occupied nearly all of the lot upon which it was built usually 25 feet wide and feet long, according to existing city regulations. Many tenements began as single-family dwellings, and many older structures were converted into tenements by adding floors on top or by building more space in rear-yard areas.|
|The History Box Presents: New York Tenement Life||Poor immigrants who came to New York City during the mid s into the early s usually lived in the tenement district amid crime, filth and disease.|
|Tenements - HISTORY||What are the three distinct classes of homes in the tenement houses? In what ways does each reflect the needs and resources of the renters?|
A large number of the tenements in Edinburgh and Glasgow were demolished in the s and s because of slum conditions, overcrowding and poor maintenance of the buildings. Perhaps the most striking case of this is seen in the Gorbals district of Glasgow, where virtually all the tenements were demolished to make way for tower blocks, which in turn have been demolished and replaced with newer structures.
The Gorbals is a relatively small area and at one time had an estimated 90, people living in its tenements, leading to very poor living conditions; now the population is roughly 10, However, the many remaining tenements in various areas of both cities have experienced a resurgence in popularity due to their large rooms, high ceilings and ornamental details.
Both Glasgow and Edinburgh are still dominated by 19th-century tenement housing, and most of the valuable properties in the west end of Glasgow are tenement houses. InWerner Hegemann 's polemic Das steinerne Berlin Stony Berlin referred to the city in its subtitle as "the largest tenement city in the world.
The buildings are almost always 5 stories high because of the mandated maximum height. These were long and narrow, three to six times as long as they were wide, and the size of the patios was reduced until as many as people could be living on a lot that had originally housed Purpose-built tenements copied their form.
By there were some 2, conventillos, withoccupants.Free Essay: OPTION 1 Life in New York Tenement Houses 1.
What are the three distinct classes of homes in the tenement houses? In what ways does each reflect. Life in New York Tenement Houses 1. What are the three distinct classes of homes in the tenement houses?
In what ways does each reflect the needs and resources of the renters? There are three distinct classes of houses in the tenement-houses; the cheapest is the attic home. Three rooms is next and is usually for very poor people.4/4(1).
"Life in New York Tenement-Houses", as seen by a city missionary "Life in New York Tenement-Houses", as seen by a city missionary These stunning facts and photos reveal just how hard life was for the immigrant occupants of New York's tenement buildings a century ago.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, New York City swelled with wave after wave of European immigrants — and many lived in tenement buildings.
Moreover, during the s, America witnessed an influx of immigrants coming from many parts of the world, they made tenement houses in New York’s lower East Side a common destination.
One person witnessing the living conditions of these tenements was journalist Jacob A. Riis. crowded: by , approximately , of New York City's more than , residents lived in some 15, tenement buildings. New York State passed a Tenement House Law on 14 May , the nation's first comprehensive housing reform law.