An analysis of masonry and construction elements in the great pyramid of giza

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An analysis of masonry and construction elements in the great pyramid of giza

The Circle of Cygnus Unable to determine whether the star Vega had been an object of veneration in the Early Neolithic world, we turn our attentions to Deneb, the brightest star in Cygnus, which until around BC was circumpolar i.

Moreover, on its lower transit of the meridian - the north-south zenith line that bisects the night sky - it crossed from left to right just above the northern horizon. Were these early temples orientated towards this star as it crossed the meridian each night? Had Deneb and the stars of Cygnus been important among the Early Neolithic peoples?

If so, then why? Cygnus was identified as a celestial bird on the Euphrates as early as c. Although most obviously a swan in Europe, Cygnus had, like Lyra, once been seen as a vulture, making it an obvious destination for those human souls being accompanied into the afterlife by a psychopomp Greek for 'soul carrier' in the guise of the celestial vulture.

In pre-Islamic Arabic tradition, Cygnus was the Eagle of the Arabs, a mythical bird known also as the roc, or rukh. This was venerated by the Yezidi, the angel-worshipping descendants of the Sabians of Harran, as a form of Khuda Kurdish for 'God 'associated with the Mysteries of the North.

An analysis of masonry and construction elements in the great pyramid of giza

The Yezidi depicted Khuda as a bird called anfar, which was seen perched on top of a pole used in private services and called a sanjak. Since the anfar is identified as a dove, it can be equated with the pigeon bird idols venerated prior to the age of Mohammed at Mecca, originally a Sabian shrine.

Their avian associations link them directly with Cygnus, which as the celestial swan came under the influence of Near Eastern love goddesses, who in Classical tradition were identified as Aphrodite and Venus.

In Christian tradition, Cygnus was seen as the Cross of Calvary as early as the sixth century, and arguably as far back as Roman times, where the crucifixion scene was associated more with the pagan god Orpheus, whom Jesus was portrayed as in a number of early Christian statues and murals found in Rome.

In Classical tradition the swan of Cygnus was originally said to have been Orpheus, god of the underworld. Cygnus was occasionally shown in Christian planispheres as Christ on the Cross, his wounds perhaps corresponding to its principal stars.

Moreover, the dove as a Christian symbol of the Holy Spirit Greek pneumaderives from the Hebrew concept of the Spirit or Breath of God ruachand stems from the same cosmological root as the Yezidi concept of the anfar, the form of Khuda God as a bird that brought the universe into manifestation.

In the first chapter of Genesis the Spirit of God ruach hovers over the primordial waters moments before God's Creation of the universe. The dove or pigeon was equated with Cygnus in Arabic tradition.

Cygnus can be found in the centre of the Milky Way, universally seen in past ages as a road or river of stars used by the dead, or the shaman in a state of trance. In ancient cosmology the Milky Way was equated with the World Tree, around which curled a serpent and on top was a celestial bird. In shamanic tradition worldwide, this World Tree had to be ascended to reach the celestial abode, or sky-world, either via the Milky Way or the north-south meridian line.

It was a realm accessed via a hole, door or gate at its most northerly point, and often this was seen as being located someone in the proximity of the cosmic axis, marked by the bird at the top of the tree, which we can safely identify as the Cygnus constellation.

This realization is expressed in the Mandaean concept of entry into the afterlife, which is gained via the Pole Star.

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Mandaean tradition speaks of no less than melki, or divine beings. It is he, "who judges the souls of men after they have passed through Purgatory, seeing whether they are purged enough to pass on into Paradise".

If deemed pure enough, the soul then makes its onward journey by boat over a celestial 'river', arguably the Milky Way, to one of the countless 'worlds of light', inhabited by their dead kinsmen. In these unimaginable realms, governed by 'great spirits of light', they meet other purified souls as well as their own 'dmutha or over-soul '.

It also makes sense of Karahan Tepe's secondary alignment towards sunrise on the summer solstice. From here in BC, the Milky Way emerged from the horizon and rose almost horizontally until it reached the stars of Cygnus which would have hung just above the northern horizon.

Did the Early Neolithic world associate Deneb and the stars of Cygnus with cosmic life and death, as their descendants, the Sabians, Mandaeans and Yezidi would seem to have done?

If correct, how did Deneb and the stars of Cygnus become so important to our earliest Neolithic ancestors? The answer appears to lie in the fact that between c. At the same time, the Milky Way would have risen up from the eastern horizon to where Cygnus occupied pole position, whilst the stars of Scorpio, anciently seen as a serpent, were placed at the base of the Milky Way expressed as the World Tree.

Did a veneration of Deneb and Cygnus linger over from the Late Palaeolithic era, c. The Early Neolithic sites in South-east Turkey as well as ancient cosmologies worldwide suggest that this was indeed the case.

Yet how universal were these concepts, really? Only by tracing the roots of this apparently Palaeolithic ideology could the theory really be proved. To achieve this aim, we turn our attentions to the ancient cosmology of the Native American peoples.

They, having arrived on the continent from Asia in Late Palaeolithic times and, in theory, having remained in isolation through until the time of the conquest, might well have preserved some semblance of knowledge regarding the former significance of Cygnus to the prehistoric mindset, imported on to the continent by nomadic peoples using the Bering land bridge between Siberia and Alaska, which emerged as the ice sheets withdrew at the end of the last Ice Age, c.According to Miatello, who has written about the pyramid's numerical patterns in the journal Ankh, and also more recently in PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, multiples of 7, 9 and 11 cubits occur frequently in the design of the Great Pyramid.

An Analysis of Masonry and Construction Elements in the Great Pyramid of Giza.

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Chichen Itza. One of the most famous pyramid sites can be found at Chichen Itza, its name meaning "At the mouth of the well of the Itza (people)". Although this was the name for the site in pre-Columbian times, it is also referred to in the ancient chronicles as Uucyabnal, meaning "Seven Great Rulers". The recorded history of structural engineering starts with the ancient the 27th century BC, Imhotep was the first structural engineer known by name and constructed the first known step pyramid in Egypt. In the 26th century BC, the Great Pyramid of Giza was constructed in remained the largest man-made structure for millennia and was considered an unsurpassed feat in. The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact.. Based on a mark in an interior chamber naming the work gang and a reference to the fourth.

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1, words. 4 pages. An Introduction to the Architecture of the Ancient Egyptian . Extreme Egyptian Masonry: (Egyptian Masonry Skills). It is not surprising that the occasional eyebrow was raised in the past concerning the extent of the Egyptian masonry skills during the Early dynastic period.

Not only were the structures superior in a visionary capacity, but also in precision, design and execution. · The half-value of Pi that was seemingly used in the construction of the Great pyramid is given by the ratio Hence, Pyramid Pi = 2 x ( / ) = p p = = 22/7 · The height of the Great pyramid is the ft) 2 .

Decoding The Great Pyramid of Giza Investigation and scientific study of the Great Pyramid in modern times began in by an astronomer at Oxford University, continued in by Napoleon's engineers, and in by an archeologist and an astronomer, later by a mathematician, and through the s by astronomers and archeologists and mathematicians.

Jean-Pierre Houdin was indeed correct when he concluded that the overwhelming bulk of the masonry used in the construction of the Great Pyramid was taken into the structure at a low level, before being transported up through the structure to its final destination.

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